Graphic Design

Print Production Fundamentals


You can glance around your environment on any given day and encounter print design. You receive information in a variety of formats: the artwork on a cereal box's front or on packing Printed numbers on the speedometer dial of your car; the information on billboards and bus shelter posters you see on the way to work; the artwork on the outside of the cup that carries your double latte. The numbers on elevator buttons, retail signage, or the humorous images on your friend's T-shirt all serve as means of information transmission. There are so many things in your life that have been designed with an informational image in mind. And someone created each of these items.

Communication design, which is also known as graphic design, is the act of using messages and visuals to spread information to a specific audience. This textbook will focus on the various stages of designing and subsequently generating tangible, printed, or other pictured items that people use on a regular basis within this range. Designing is just the beginning. The complete workflow from conception to production must be taken into account while creating a new design. The concepts and ideas don't stay on the computer, even if the majority of contemporary art and design is produced on computers with design software like the Photoshop suite of products. For example, the concepts for in-store signage must be finished in the software applications before moving on to the imaging process, which is more commonly known as printing. This collection of disciplines spans a very broad and diverse range. Our intention is to especially concentrate on various facets of the planning process, from creation through production, by asking a select group of professionals to write the chapters of this textbook.



Every chapter starts off with a list of educational activities and ends with exercises and a list of further reading on the summary page. Key terms are highlighted throughout and are listed once more in a Glossary at the end of the book.

We begin Chapter 1 with some history. We may draw inspiration from the designers who came before us and learn from them by studying the history of design. With influences from movements and schools like the Bauhaus, Dada, International Typographic Style (ITS), as well as other influences that are still evident in contemporary designs, graphic design has a very rich and intriguing history.

We now live in a time when postmodernism has been influenced by the computer. Is it a new era now? Are we beginning a brand-new era? Or do contemporary designs only recycle motifs that have been around for a very long time?


Afterwards, the design process is discussed. Contrary to what we frequently witness in popular television programs and motion pictures, where advertising executives suddenly come up with big, actionable concepts, design strategies are rarely discovered through such an unexpected burst of inspiration. The design process is an intentional, beneficial, and prescriptive procedure that is supported by particular tactics.

For instance, very thorough study must be done before any designed communication can be initiated. This occurs long before any computer software for graphic design or layout is launched. Creating a method to convey a particular 2 Graphic Communications Open Textbook Collective and focused message is a sort of designing. The way a designer separates the problem into separate creative activities is through the design process. An examination of the goals is the first step. The problem is studied in detail, and it is frequently defined in great detail. In order to generate as many unique ideas and directions as possible, brainstorming and ideation take place during the idea phase, frequently without any form of judgment. Solutions are then assessed based on this information, including their perceived influence on the target audience and their perceived efficacy in communicating the desired message. All of this knowledge is finally condensed into a workable answer. Designers don't just sit around waiting for inspiration to strike; they follow a process to bring it to life.


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Outlines the key components of design that are essential for successful graphic layout and creation. The information cannot be "thrown" onto the page when a layout is being created. In order to develop a design that is both aesthetically pleasing and comprehensible, design is a careful process that draws on a variety of talents. We talk about the grid in all of its incarnations, including the ITS grid, the golden ratio, and even methods for not using a grid at all. Space is a key component of design, with various elements on the page requiring more or less room to function effectively. Along with a variety of distinct typographic conventions, we also discuss the density, or "color," of the type on the page.

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